2015年7月23日 星期四

系統神學系列〈2〉:論奧古斯丁教會論的totus Christus與成神論的關係

湃   恩

奧古斯丁(St. Aurelius Augustine354-430)—北非希波的主教和神學家,對基督教神學有極大貢獻,其神學也成為後來拉丁基督教教義的基礎。奧氏教會論以團體基督total Christ, totus Christus)觀[1]—即由基督(頭)與教會(身體)組成的一個團體位格的基督(una quaedam persona最為突出並為中心。[2] 這觀念大大影響他的神學和釋經原則,[3] 也影響整個東西方教會,尤其對西方教會最深。初期教會對教會論的關注,較基督論和三一論等教義來得緩慢。[4] 在三世紀,教會內部因帝國逼迫冒出分裂之象,教會合一受到重大打擊後,居普良(Cyprian of Carthage)於是發表論教會合一。教會始對教會論有較具體的討論。[5] 到四世紀,奧古斯丁因面對多納徒派(Donatists)極力主張的教會聖潔觀而進行反駁,教會論的發展才獲得一個綜合性的結論。[6]
貫穿奧氏整個神學思想之一卻常被忽略的[7]為他的成神觀(Deification[8]神成為人,為要使人成為神[9]—這觀念為基督教神學,特別是東正教神學和西方羅馬天主教神學的特色,近年亦越來越受西方學者們及奧氏研究者注意。[10] 本文旨在探討奧氏團體基督與成神這二觀的關係,藉以深入認識奧氏神學思想。筆者先從他的著作,引證並扼要勾劃他的成神觀。然後展示奧氏如何運用了團體基督處理教會合一的問題。最後,點出他這兩個觀點是彼此呼應並緊緊地結合的;團體基督的內容就是成神觀的展現。
第一部分:綜覽奧古斯丁的成神觀
奧古斯丁認為,神照著祂的形像imageImago Dei和樣式likeness造人(創一26),這指明神造人的目的是要與受造的人聯合,使人能有分於神,而像神』(like God[11] 他指創造是神自己、憑著祂的道,並按照祂意願的喜悅,邀請祂的受造物分享祂的神聖屬性而進行[12],為使祂的榮耀得著稱讚(弗三811)。他指神在祂的預定裏要得著的這團體,就是教會。[13]
        奧氏認為神的形像,不僅是神子基督的形像(西一15),更是三一神的形像。[14] 『形像』含示『相似(similarsimilitudo)』和『複製』[15] 故此,人有神的形像,指明人是三一神及神子基督這模型(model的複製品。[16] 然而,人有神形像未使他達致完全像神。神給予人自由意志,亞當若願意一直轉向神(turning to God, Conuersio ad Deum),即他的源頭,他就能與那創造者聯合和契合,而不斷地分享神聖生命,達致像神子基督,至終與神成為一[17] 反之人若轉離神,他就墮落、失去神的形像及人的意義。[18]
        不幸地,代表全人類之第一個人亞當不順服,接受了魔鬼的計謀,想要遠離神而像神(創三5),而非憑著有分於神而像神,人類就墮落了。對奧氏而言,所有罪的根源就是想要轉離神來像神、與神平等。[19] 為了恢復人這失去的形像,神自己親自成為人,神子基督道成肉身成為第二個人。在祂位格裏,神性與人性聯合。因祂的順服,使人得以在祂裡面得救,並復得在亞當裡所失去的形像。[20]
        因此,奧古斯丁認為子的道成肉身是為著人的聖化。[21]在他著作中使用過之18聖化,deify deificare這辭,都是與子的道成肉身有關。他跟隨愛任紐(Irenaeus)和亞他那修(Athansius)發展自保羅在弗一10的觀點:神的兒子道成肉身取了軟弱的人性,為要使人能有分於祂不朽壞的神性。 於奧氏而言,救恩是人恢復神聖的形像[22],聖化成為神的過程。[23] 這過程開始於信徒的水禮,而接續的更新變化是一生之久(林後三18)。[24]
        基督的死完成救贖,祂升天得榮後賜下聖靈。[25] 祂的工作是內住信徒裡面,重生他們成為基督在地上的身體,並將他們聯於天上的頭。聖靈與父子同質,也是連結父與子之間的愛。[26] 聖靈的內住也帶同父子一同內住信徒裡面,[27] 使信徒心裏充滿神聖的愛、分別他們為聖,並將信徒與三一神及彼此聯結起來,成為基督活的、獨一的生機體(organism[28] 他說:『沒有基督的靈,基督的身體就不能存在。』[29]。藉著聖靈的內住和不斷的聖化(弗五2532),教會至終成為基督的一部,成為『敬虔的奧祕﹗合一的記號﹗相愛的聯索﹗』。[30] 這是奧古斯丁成神觀的綜覽。
第二部分:奧古斯丁教會論中『totus Christus』觀念
393年起,[31] 奧古斯丁正式展開對多納徒派的反駁,他的教會觀在面對這挑戰下越趨成熟[32] 多納徒派主張:叛教是不能赦免的罪,叛教者(traditor)不能回歸教會,故叛教的聖職人員所施行聖禮如按立禮和洗禮也無效。他們要維持教會的純潔性和無罪性,認為他們分出去的才是真教會,這使得教會產生了嚴重的分裂。[33]
奧氏充分地運用了團體基督的概念來處理多納徒派的神學爭論。他強調的主要有以下四方面:
(一)教會的合一:在他看來,教會除了是一班蒙召聚集之神的子民外,更是基督奧祕的身體,肢體雖多,但身體只有一個。他跟隨保羅的思想(徒九,羅十二45,林前十二1227,弗四316[34],指這地上的教會(身體)與天上的基督(頭)是一整體的聯合,不可分開,是與耶穌基督聯合之道成肉身的延續團體基督[35] 其中,基督與教會共享一個身分和一個生命。[36] 教會既是團體基督,多納徒派分裂教會就是對道成肉身之基督嚴重得罪,其罪不少於『交經者』(traditor)。[37] 而離開大公教會的人,就如肢體從身體上從切割了,雖仍有形狀,卻已沒有生命。[38]
(二)相愛的團契教會也是聖靈所建立愛的團契,而聖靈將基督和教會聯繫起來,並使教會成為緊緊聯結相愛的群體。這愛乃是聖靈自己—神的愛,祂是連結父與子之間的愛。故只有在大公教會之內,才能真正地得著聖靈所傳輸於人心的愛。奧氏運用團體基督的觀念,呼籲教會肢體實行弟兄相愛:教會既是道成肉身之基督的延續,看見教會就是看見那看不見之神因此,人若操練愛弟兄就是操練愛神了[39] 奧氏認為那些不關心教會合一者,即缺乏神的愛,他們沒有聖靈,故他們是在大公教會以外,非真教會。[40]
(三)教會的聖潔奧氏贊同居普良的看法,教會是有形可見的。但另一面他也採用柏拉圖的理型論(Forms),闡述教會也有無形的一面。[41] 真實完全聖潔的教會是那無形的教會。這教會並不完全等同地上有形可見的教會,但必然是在其中。[42] 聖潔無疑是教會的標記,是追求的目標,但不是教會今日的實況。教會今天仍有罪人與聖徒同在。[43] 他借用保羅在腓三21改變形狀』(transformationtransfigurabit這辭來發展他的團體基督』觀,說明今天在地上的可見教會還未達致完全的地步[44] 他說,這『團體基督』的頭已『改變形狀』復活並升天,但身體仍在『改變形狀』中。升天之基督正將信徒的人性聖化,使教會改變形狀成為基督自己(基督的身體)(transform into Himselftransfiguro in se,與祂完全聯合為一,完全像祂。[45] 在終末時,地上的教會完全跟隨基督升天進入榮耀裏去。[46] 多納徒派的『聖潔教會,其實是理想中的真教會,只能實現於今世無形的教會以及終末之時。[47]
(四)聖禮的意義:對奧氏來說,『團體基督』仍未完全達至神的目標,仍在『改變形狀』之中,故基督設立聖禮,傳達祂的恩典給教會,使教會有分於祂的恩典而得以聖化,成為基督(becoming Christ)的[48] 他看聖禮是有形的標記,象徵屬靈的實際。[49] 惟有藉著聖禮,教會才能憑聖靈與基督成為一體[50],實現約十七信徒的合一(1419);[51] 並能有分基督的聖潔而成為聖潔,[52] 實現弗五之聖潔沒有瑕疵、許配給新郎基督的新婦(3132[53]
按『團體基督』的解經原則,奧氏認為亞當與夏娃預表基督與教會(弗五232930,創二2125)。[54] 他特別注重水禮和聖餐禮,因這二者都與團體基督特別相關信徒藉這兩個聖禮被帶進基督的身體裡,與基督聯合成為一體就如夏娃與亞當成為一體。[55]在水禮中,聖靈洗去信徒的罪、將信徒與基督同埋葬,並聯於基督,重生他們成為『團體基督』奧祕身體的肢體。[56] 這禮是信徒(人)有分於神聖恩典的起始。然後,信徒就有資格領聖餐,繼續與眾肢體一同有分神聖恩典。奧氏指信徒吃喝聖餐的餅和酒,表徵受造的人有分於那從天降下之基督的神聖、永遠、非受造的生命,使他們在生活中接受真理和愛的靈,因祂而活(約六57[57] ,彰顯三一神的形像。[58] 還有,聖餐的餅,是由許多子粒磨碾調和造成一個餅,正是表徵『團體基督』的合一。信徒越吃進這餅,就越成為所吃的,成為『團體基督』的一部分。[59] 多納徒派認為叛教的聖職人員所施行的聖禮無效。然而,奧古斯丁指出聖禮既是基督的工作,不是人的工作,而施禮者本身也未達完全,他自己都是在神化的過程中。所以聖禮的效力乃因工生效(ex opera operato),不在乎施行聖禮的品行。否則就沒有人能有資格施禮,整個聖禮制度便會瓦解。而在多納徒派教會所施的聖禮也有效。人若返回大公教會,他不必重新接受水禮。[60]
第三部分:『團體基督』與成神觀之關係及總結
從以上可看出,奧氏的成神觀緊密地結合在他的教會論中[61] 首先,他成神觀的對象並非個別或部分信徒,而是整個教會[62] 。信徒的聖化必須是在教會的團契內發生,並由參與教會的水禮為起點,繼續於聖餐禮領受恩典。其次,成神論內涵的撮要神成為人,為要使人成為神』具體地展現在『團體基督』觀中[63]神的獨生子基督道成肉身,將神性與人性聯合。死而復活得榮後,成團體基督的頭,使蒙揀選、救贖之受造的人,藉與祂這神人基督聯合而有分於神性,成為神的眾子、道成肉身的延續,構成祂的身體。他們的人性不斷被聖化使這身體直到整個『團體基督』完全像頭、成為基督自己。如此,這『團體基督』就實現了在神原初創造心意和計劃中之『形像』的意義。
最後需補充,奧氏強調,雖然頭和身體是不能分開的,但他們的身分和尊榮仍是有永遠的區別—頭是創造者和拯救者,身體是受造者和被拯救者。[64] 基督的神性是本質上(by nature),而教會(人)分享祂的神性,是與祂這神人中保的人性聯合,有分祂的恩典 (by participation of grace)[65] 基督不是因沒有我們而不完全(incomplete),而是祂不願沒有教會而完全。基督把祂自己與人聯合,完全是出於祂恩愛的揀選。[66]
『團體基督』觀念把教會與神的創造、基督的道成肉身和救贖工作、聖靈的工作、信徒救恩的目標、聖禮的意義,以及信徒和宇宙的終末等聖經主題緊扣起來,也不約而同地與東方教會的成神觀傳統相似[67] 總結,筆者認為奧氏神學思想深邃、全面且平衡。他的『團體基督教會觀深深支配著中世紀教會,至今仍保留在羅馬天主教神學裏。[68] 可惜改革運動後更正教會漸遺忘這巨人教父的觀點。[69] 慶幸近年它漸復受注意,重現光明。筆者認為華人教會值得共同深入發堀這大公教會的寶庫,益於基督整個身體的建造(弗四1213)。






[1] 此觀念遍佈奧氏著作,顯著一例為:Homily 1 on the First Epistle of John 1.2: “the Word was made flesh, and dwelt in us. To that flesh the Church is joined, and so there is made the whole Christ, Head and body.” http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/170201.htm
[2] J.N.D. Kelly,《早期基督教教義》,287-290
[3] Kimberly F. Baker. Transfiguravit in se: The Sacramentality of Augustine’s Doctrine of Totus Christus, p559: “The roots of the doctrine (totus Christus) lie in Augustine’s exegetical strategy, one adapted from the Rules of the Donatists lay theologian Tyconius.”.
  Adrian Warnock, Tichonius the Donatist – Seven Rules of Biblical Interpretation – Quoted by Augustine, Calvin, and Bede, http://www.patheos.com/blogs/adrianwarnock/2006/11/tichonius-donatist-seven-rules-of/
[4] 林榮洪,《基督教神學發展史—初期教會》,中國神學研究院,1995,頁228
[5] 林榮洪,230
[6] 林榮洪,244
[7] Gerald Bonner, Augustine’s conception of Deification, p369-370;
David Vincent Meconi, SJ,The One Christ: St. Augustine’s Theology of Deification, The Catholic University of America Press, 2013, xi.
[8] 東方教會希臘文為θέωσις, Theosis中文有譯作成神神化聖化等。.
[9] Irenaeus, Adv. Her. 5.Pref: “...the Word of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, who did, through His transcendent love, become what we are, that He might bring us to be even what He is Himself. (Philip Schaff, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 1.526)
Athanasius, De Incarnation 54.3: “For He was made man that we might be made God.” (Philip Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, 4.65).
[10] 王生台,《西方神學的新導向:Theosis「人成為神」—東正教神學所持守的救恩論,西方神學研究的新方向》,時代論壇1119期,2010 http://christiantimes.org.hk/Common/Reader/News/ShowNews.jsp?Nid=57996&Pid=6&Version=0&Cid=150&Charset=big5_hkscs
[11] Meconi, 35; Augustine, On the Trinity, 14.8.11: For it is His image in this very point, that it is capable of Him, and can be partaker of Him; which so great good is only made possible by its being His image.http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/130114.htm.
[12] Meconi,28-29, 31;Augustine, Dei 11.21: Henry Bettenson translated, London Penguin, 1984, City of God, p457: because it was right that three leading truths regarding the creature be intimated to us, viz., who made it, by what means, and why, it is written, ‘God said, Let there be light, and there was light. And God saw the light that it was good’. If, then, we ask who made it, it was ‘God’. If, by what means, He said ‘Let it be’, and it was. If we ask, why He made it, ‘it was good.Neither is there any author more excellent than God, nor any skill more efficacious than the word of God, nor any cause better than that good might be created by the good God. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/120111.htm
[13] Meconi,30,33; Augustine, Conf.13.34.49:“what You willed to be shadowed forth, whether by the creation, or the description of things in such an order. And we have seen that ‘things severally are good, and all things very good’, (Genesis 1:31) in Your Word, in Your Only-Begotten, both heaven and earth, the Head and the body of the Church, in Your predestination before all times, without morning and evening.” http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/110113.htm
[14] Meconi,42-43Augustine, On Genesis, Edmund Hill translated, New City Press, 1996, p150: “not of the Father alone or of the Son alone or of the Holy Spirit alone, but of the Trinity itself.
[15] Meconi,38; Augustine, On Genesis, 16.57.
[16] Meconi,77.
[17] Carol Harrison, Augustine and Religious Experience, Louvain Studies 27 (2002): p99-118; 105;
  Meconi,48;
  Augustine, On Genesis, 8.12; Hill, Genesis, p171-172: “By so turning back and being formed creation imitates, every element in its own way, God the Word, that is the Son of God who always adheres to the Father in complete likeness and equality of being, by which he and the Father are one; but it does not imitate this form of the Word if it turns away from the creator and remains formless and imperfect, incomplete…
[18] Augustine, Confessions, 4.16.31: “Our good lives always with You, from which when we are averted we are perverted. Let us now, O Lord, return, that we be not overturned…” See http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/110104.htm
[19] Meconi,70;
   Augustine, Trin. 10.5.7; Hill, Trinity, pp.292: “but instead of staying still and enjoying them as it ought to, it wants to be what he is by its own right. So it turns away from him and slithers and slides down into less and less which is imagined to be more and more…http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/130110.htm.
[20] Bonner, 375;
  Meconi,72;
  Augustine, en. Ps.32, exp. 3.16; Maria Boulding, Expositions of the Psalms (III/15), New City Press, 2000, p416: “…by stooping to sin it defaced the image. He (God) who had originally formed it came himself to reform it, for all things were created through the Word, and through the Word the image was stamped on us.”;
[21] Bonner, 373-374;
  Augustine, Expositions of the Psalms, 58.1.7:”The teacher of humility and sharer of our infirmity, giving us participation of His divinity, coming down that He might both teach and be the Way, has deigned most highly to commend His humility to us”; Enchiridion on Faith, Hope, and Charity, x. 34
[22] Bonner, 373-374;
  Augustine, Sermons, 27.vi.6: “Christ’s deformity forms you, for if He had not willed to be deformed, you would not have recovered the form which you lost. He, therefore, hung upon the cross deformed; but His deformity was our beauty. In this life, therefore, let us hold the deformed Christ.”
[23] Bonner, 382;
  Augustine, On the Merits and Forgiveness of Sins and on Infant Baptism, 2.8.10: “Our full adoption as sons will take place in the redemption of our body. We now have the firstfruits of the Spirit, by which we are indeed made sons of God; but in other respects we are sons of God as saved and made new by hope. In the event, however, since we are not yet finally saved, we are therefore not yet fully made new nor yet sons of God, but children of this world.” http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/15012.htm
[24] Bonner, 381;
  Augustine, On the Trinity, 14.17.25: “Certainly this renewal does not take place in the single moment of conversion itself, as that renewal in baptism takes place in a single moment by the remission of all sins; for not one, be it ever so small, remains unremitted. …; so the first cure is to remove the cause of infirmity, and this is wrought by the forgiving of all sins; but the second cure is to heal the infirmity itself, and this takes place gradually by making progress in the renewal of that image: which two things are plainly shown in the Psalm, where we read, Who forgives all your iniquities, which takes place in baptism; and then follows, and heals all your infirmities; and this takes place by daily additions, while this image is being renewed.”
[25] Meconi,136;
  Augustine, On the Trinity, 4.20.29, Hill, Trinity, 174: ’For the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified;’ how is this to be understood, unless because the special giving or sending of the Holy Spirit after the glorification of Christ was to be such as it had never been before? For it was not previously none at all, but it had not been such as this. For if the Holy Spirit was not given before, wherewith were the prophets who spoke filled? “http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/130104.htm
[26] Meconi,136;
  Augustine, On the Trinity, 1.9.19, Hill, Trinity, 79: “He(the Spirit) will not therefore depart when the Father and the Son come, but will be in the same abode with them eternally; because neither will He come without them, nor they without Him.” http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/130101.htm
[27] Meconi,137;
  Augustine, Sermons 264.4; Hill, Sermons (III/7), 229; Tractates on the Gospel of John 94.4, Rettig, Tractates, 4.183.
[28] Meconi,143-144;
  Augustine, the Trinity, 6.5.7, Hill, Trinity, 209: “Wherefore also the Holy Spirit consists in the same unity of substance, and in the same equality. For whether He is the unity of both, or the holiness, or the love, or therefore the unity because the love, and therefore the love because the holiness, it is manifest that He is not one of the two, through whom the two are joined, through whom the Begotten is loved by the Begetter, and loves Him that begot Him, and through whom, not by participation, but by their own essence, neither by the gift of any superior, but by their own, ‘they are keeping the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace (Eph.4:3); which we are commanded to imitate by grace, both towards God and towards ourselves…because we ourselves are one by His gift, and one spirit with Him”. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/130106.htm
[29] Meconi,173;
  Augustine, Tractates on the Gospel of John 26.13: “The body of Christ cannot live but by the Spirit of Christ.http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1701026.htm
[30] Augustine, Tractates on the Gospel of John 26.13: ”O mystery of piety! O sign of unity! O bond of charity!”
[31] Geoffery Grimshaw Willis, Saint Augustine and Donatist Controversy, p36.
[32] Kimberly F. Baker, Transfiguravit in se: The Sacramentality of Augustine’s Doctrine of Totus Christus, p567;
  Willis, 93-126.
  David C. Alexander, Augustine’s Early Theology of the Church-Emergence and Implications, 386-391, p334-336.
[33] 林榮洪,242-243
[34] Van Bavel, The ‘Christus Totus’ Idea, 84-88.
[35] Meconi,176-177;
  Augustine, Tractates on the Gospel of John 21.8: “Let us rejoice, then, and give thanks that we are made not only Christians, but Christ. Do ye understand, brethren, and apprehend the grace of God upon us? Marvel, be glad, we are made Christ. For if He is the head, we are the members: the whole man is He and we. This is what the Apostle Paul saith: “That we be no longer babes, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine.” But above he had said, “Until we all come together into the unity of faith, and to the knowledge of the Son of God, to the perfect man, to the measure of the age of the fullness of Christ.”(Eph4:14) The fullness of Christ, then, is head and members. Head and members, what is that? Christ and the Church. We should indeed be arrogating this to ourselves proudly, if He did not Himself deign to promise it, who saith by the same apostle, “But ye are the body of Christ, and members.”(1 Cor 12:27)”. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1701021.htm
  Augustine, Sermons, 58.1.2:“…let there speak to us Christ, Head and Body. So always, or nearly always, let us hear the words of Christ from the Psalm, as that we look not only upon that Head, the one mediator between God and man, the Man Christ Jesus. (1 Timothy 2:5) ...But let us think of Christ, Head and whole Body, a sort of entire Man. For to us is said, But you are the Body of Christ and members, (1 Corinthians 12:27) by the Apostle Paul. If therefore He is Head, we Body; whole Christ is Head and Body.http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1801059.htm
[36] Baker, 559-560;
  Augustine, Expositions of Psalms 30.3, Boulding, (New York, 2000), 323: “This is the wonderful exchange, the divine business deal, the transaction effected in this world by the heavenly dealer….Without him, we are nothing, but in him we too are Christ. Why? Because the whole Christ consists of Head and Body. The Head is he who is savior of his Body, he who has already ascended into heaven; but the Body is the Church, toiling on earth.”
[37] Augustine, Homily 6 on the First Epistle of John, He(Christ) came to gather in one, you come to unmake. You would pull Christ's members asunder. How can it be said that you deny not that Christ has come in the flesh, who rendest assunder the Church of God which He has gathered together? Therefore you go against Christ; you are an antichrist.” http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/170206.htm
[38] Augustine, Sermons 268.2
[39] Augustine, Homily 5 on the First Epistle of John 5.7: ““But wherein must we exercise ourselves? In brotherly love. You may say to me, I have not seen God; can you say to me, I have not seen man? Love your brother. For if you love your brother whom you see, at the same you will also see God.” http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/170205.htm
[40] Willis, 114;
  Augustine, To Cresconius, a Donatist Grammarian,1.29.34; Epistles 61.2; On the Trinity 15.33; Exposition of the Psalms 32.21
  李日堂,《系統神學—教會論》,播道會文字部,2012,頁43-46
[41] 李日堂,44
[42] 林榮洪,245
[43] Augustine, Sermons 88.22; On Baptist against the Donatist 6.1; The City of God 10.6.
[44] Baker, 561:此辭在奧氏著作論到基督與教會之團體基督的關係時,共使用37次之多
[45] Baker, 560-561.
[46] Baker, 559;
  Bonner, 375;
 Augustine, Sermons 22. X. 10: “But the hitherto the whole Body has not received it, for the head is in heaven, but the members still upon earth. Nor shall the head alone receive the inheritance and the body be left. The whole Christ will receive the inheritance – the whole according to the manhood, that is, head and body.
[47] 林榮洪,245
[48] Baker, 567.
[49] J.N.D. Kelly, 293-297
  李日堂,115
[50] 林榮洪,246
[51] Meconi, 204;
  Augustine, Tractates on the Gospel of John 108.5: “on the ground that the Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, has become Head of the Church, they are His members; therefore He says in the words that follow, ‘And for their sakes I sanctify myself.’ …For those of whom He so speaks are, as I have said, His members; and the head and body are one Christ…Then accordingly He sanctified Himself in Himself, that is, Himself the man in Himself the Word; for the Word and the man is one Christ, who sanctifies the manhood in the Word. But in behalf of His members He says, ‘And for their sakes I’,— that is, that the benefit may be also theirs, for they too are [included in the] I, just as it benefited me in myself, because I am man apart from them— ‘I sanctify myself’, that is, I sanctify them as if it were my own self in me, since in me they also are I. ‘That they also may be sanctified in the truth’. … After this He now begins to speak not only of the apostles, but also of the rest of His members, which we shall treat of, as grace may be granted us, in another discourse. “ See also http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1701108.htm
[52] Meconi,207;
  Augustine, Expositions of Psalms 85.4: “When therefore I hear,’ for I am holy’, I recognise His voice: yet do I exclude my own? Surely He speaks inseparably from His body when He speaks thus. Shall I then dare to say, ‘For I am holy?’ If holy as making (others) holy, and as needing none to sanctify, I should be proud and false: but if holy as made holy, as it is written, Be holy, ‘for I am holy’, (Leviticus 19:2) then the body of Christ may venture, and that one Man crying from the end of the earth, may venture with his Head, and under his Head, to say, ‘For I am holy’.” http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1801086.htm
[53] Meconi,202, 215
[54] Alexander, 213-214;
  Augustine, On Genesis, 2.13.19, 2.24.37: “the Apostle says it is a great sacrament when it is written, ‘Because of this a man will leave father and mother and will cling to his wife, and they will be two in one flesh’ (Gen. 2:24) Which passage is interpreted as follows: ‘But I speak of Christ and the church’ (Eph 5:31-32). Therefore, what was fulfilled as history in Adam, through prophecy signifies Christ, who left his father, when he said, ‘I went out from my Father and came into this world’ (Jn. 16:28)… He also left his mother, that is, the old and carnal observance of the synagogue, which was a mother to him from the seed of David according to the flesh. For the Apostle says that he (Christ) is the head of the church and the church is his Body (Cf. Col 1:18). Therefore, he too was put to sleep by the sleep of the passion so that the church might be formed as his wife. He sings of this sleep through the prophet, saying, ‘I have fallen asleep and have slept; I have arisen, because the Lord has taken up’ (Ps. 3:16). Therefore, a wife (the church) was formed for him, from his side, that is from the faith of the passion and baptism. For his side, having been pierced with the spear, poured out blood and water. (Jn. 19:34)”
[55] Augustine, Expositions of Psalms 40.1, 56.11, 102.10, 126.7, 127.11, 12, 138.2; Sermons 218.
[56] Meconi,221-223;
  Augustine, On Baptism; On the Soul and its Origin, 1.9.10; City of God, 13.7
[57] Meconi,225;
  Augustine, Tractates on the Gospel of John 26.19:” He spoke thus: ‘As the living Father has sent me, and I live by the Father; so he that eats me, even he shall live by me’: just as if He were to say, My emptying of myself (in that He sent me) effected that I should live by the Father; that is, should refer my life to Him as the greater; but that any should live by me is effected by that participation in which he eats me. Therefore, I being humbled, do live by the Father, man being raised up, lives by me.”. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1701026.htm
[58] Meconi,224-225;
  Augustine, Sermons 131.1: “Eat Life, drink Life; thou shalt have life, and the Life is Entire. But then this shall be, that is, the Body and the Blood of Christ shall be each man’s Life; if what is taken in the Sacrament visibly is in the truth itself eaten spiritually, drunk spiritually.http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf106.vii.lxxxiii.html; Tractates on the Gospel of John 27.11:”
[59] Meconi,221-224;
  Augustine, Sermons 272: “So if you want to understand the body of Christ, listen to the apostle telling the faithful, “You, though, are the body of Christ and its members” (1 Cor 12:27). So if it’s you that are the body of Christ and its members, it’s the mystery meaning you that has been placed on the Lord’s table; what you receive is the mystery that means you. It is to what you are that you reply “Amen,” and by so replying you express your assent. What you hear, you see, is “The body of Christ,” and you answer, “Amen.” So be a member of the body of Christ, in order to make that “Amen” true. http://annaeadams.wordpress.com/2012/01/23/augustine-sermon-272/
  Sermons 57.7:”The Eucharistic bread should be for us daily bread that we eat to make us live. When we have reached Christ himself it will no longer be necessary to receive the Eucharist... So the Eucharist is for us bread for everyday. We must, however, receive it in such a way that we not only get new bodily strength, but also spiritual power. For the power that the Eucharist gives is unity. This means that after we have received Christ's body and become his members, we are what we have received. Only then does the Eucharist really become our daily bread. However, what I preach to you is also your daily bread. The same holds true for the hymns that you hear and pray. All these things are necessary for our present pilgrim journey through life. When, however, we have reached our destination we will no longer need to hear the book being read. We will see the Word himself, eat, hear and drink him.”
[60] 林榮洪246283-285
[61] Bonner, 383
[62] Bonner, 375-376
[63] Meconi,226.
[64] Augustine, Sermons 91.8: “For that ye may know, that the Bridegroom and the Bride are One according to the Flesh of Christ, not according to His Divinity (for according to His Divinity we cannot be what He is; seeing that He is the Creator, we the creature; He the Maker, we His work; He the Framer, we framed by Him; but in order that we might be one with Him in Him, He vouchsafed to be our Head, by taking of us flesh wherein to die for us); that ye may know then that this whole is One Christ, He said by Isaiah, "He hath bound a mitre on me as a bridegroom, and clothed me with ornaments as a bride."(1) He is then at once the Bridegroom and the Bride. That is, the Bridegroom in Himself as the Head, the Bride in the body. "For they twain," saith He, "shall be in one flesh; so now they are no more twain, but one flesh." http://www.ewtn.com/library/PATRISTC/PNI6-9.TXT
[65] Bonner 376;
  Augustine, On the Trinity 4.2.4: “by nature we are not (divine). For by nature we are not God: by nature we are men, by sin we are not righteous. Wherefore God, made a righteous man, interceded with God for man the sinner. For the sinner is not congruous to the righteous, but man is congruous to man. By joining therefore to us the likeness of His humanity, He took away the unlikeness of our unrighteousness; and by being made partaker of our mortality, He made us partakers of His divinity.http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/130104.htm
[66] Tarsicius J. van Bavel, Church in Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia (Gen. Ed.: Allan D. Fitzgerald; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999) 171;
  Augustine, Sermons 341.1.1, 9.1.
[67] Bonner, 369, 371;
  Veli-Matti Karkkainen,《教會論:全球導覽》(A Introduction to Ecclesiology: Ecumenical, Historical & Global Perspectives),第一章
[68] Catechism of the Catholic Church《天主教教理》), p123a9p2: http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p123a9p2.htm
[69] Bonner, 369-370

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